Cervical cancer is one of the most commonFemale oncological diseases. A large list of factors conditioning it and the absence of symptoms in the early stages make this disease even more frightening for the beautiful half of the population.

Causes of cervical cancer

Cervical cancer

In addition to the reasons that contribute to the emergence ofAny cancer (age after 45 years, the effect of radiation and chemical carcinogens), cervical cancer can be caused by the following factors:

- genital herpes and human papillomavirus;
- promiscuous sex life;
- early (at the age of 16 years) the onset of sexual activity;
- early (under 16 years of age) pregnancy and first childbirth;
- Numerous abortions: every abortion made by a woman is another step towards cervical cancer;
- Various inflammatory processes in the female genitalia and sexually transmitted diseases;
- cervical erosion;
- Smoking;
- prolonged continuous intake of hormonal contraception;
- Violations of the immune system, in particular, HIV infection.

Cervical cancer. Stages of development of the disease

Cervical cancer

This malignant tumor develops slowly,For several years. The emergence of a tumor is preceded by changes in the cells of the cervical tissue - there is a so-called epithelial dysplasia. If the necessary treatment has not been started, then the dysplasia goes through three stages: a light, medium and heavy form.

Severe epithelial dysplasia is an early stage of noninvasive (intraepithelial) cervical cancer.

Progressing, changes on the cervix with time lead to the next stage - microinvasive cancer. It can be determined by resorting to diagnosis by histology.

The last stage of cervical cancer is invasiveCancer, when tumor cells can be transmitted through blood to other tissues and organs, causing the formation of metastases. Cancer cells affect the uterus and vagina, bladder and intestine, metastases appear in the lymph nodes, kidneys, liver and lungs.

Signs of cervical cancer

The main danger of this disease is its practical asymptomatic.

The early stages of cervical cancer are most often notAre characterized by some external manifestations. As a rule, they are detected as a result of a smear and colposcopy study. Therefore, for every woman, even without complaints, so systematic (twice a year) examination at the gynecologist. This will allow to reveal in time the initial stages of the development of the disease - and therefore, as soon as possible to take measures for its treatment.

One of the first symptoms of cervical cancer -Bloody discharge during and after intercourse and periodic watery discharge, eventually changing to bloody. This is due to the destruction of lymphatic and circulatory capillaries of the cervical epithelium. With the course of the disease (invasive cancer), bloody discharges become more regular and intense, and with the decay of the tumor - purulent and foul-smelling.

Another sign of cervical cancer is painfulSensations in the back, legs, during emptying, which occur when the tumor cells spread to other organs and tissues. Concomitant symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may be fever, weight loss.

Cervical cancer. Treatment

Cervical cancer

There are three methods for treating cervical cancer:

- surgical method (operation);
- Radiation therapy (ionizing radiation);
- Chemotherapy (drugs that stop the growth of cancer cells).

Usually, These methods are applied in complex, But much depends on the stage of the disease. So, exclusively operational method is possible only at the initial stages of cervical cancer. Treatment of invasive cervical cancer is no longer possible without radiotherapy after surgery. Chemotherapy as an independent method is not applied because of its low effectiveness in this disease, and therefore it can only be considered as a supplement to the surgical and radiation method.

The effectiveness of cervical cancer treatment depends onA number of factors: the stage of the disease, the age of the woman, the correctness of the choice of a particular method of therapy. However, the first place is occupied by the early diagnosis of the disease - the earlier the disease is identified, the more likely the success of treatment and the longer the life of the patient after therapy.

Inoculation against cervical cancer

Cervical cancer

Recently, the territory of our country has appeared Inoculation against human papillomavirus. In view of the fact that this disease is considered one of the prerequisites for the emergence of cervical cancer, this gave an occasion in the people to baptize this vaccine as "inoculation against cervical cancer."

It would seem that the issue with the enemy of female healthNumber one is resolved, but in fact, it's not so simple. Firstly, the vaccine should be prescribed to girls and girls before the onset of sexual activity, but the genetically modified components contained therein can, allegedly, lead to infertility. Secondly, this vaccination can hardly be considered a panacea for cervical cancer, since HPV is only one of (and not the only) reasons for the onset of this tumor. The opinions of doctors on this issue, as always, diverge, and we can only think and decide for ourselves ...

Prevention of cervical cancer

Where it is safer for health to try simplyPrevent various gynecological diseases: use a condom, do not get involved in promiscuous sexual relations, monitor your health, do not abuse harmful habits, regularly undergo examinations with a gynecologist. Watch your health, dear women!