Often, in periodicals and on television,Talk about diabetes as a terrible phenomenon that destroys all life. Yes, diabetes makes you change your lifestyle, but if you constantly monitor it, you can not experience any problems with this ailment.
In order to fully reveal the topic of diabetes, it is necessary to understand the reasons why diabetes occurs in the human body.
Causes of diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is divided into 2 types: Type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These are two completely different diseases, but in the first and second cases, the culprit of the disease is an elevated blood sugar level.
Sugar (glucose) is a nutritious material,Providing us with energy, and insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that promotes the entry of glucose into the cells of our body. Let's try to explain by an example: in the normal functioning of the body, after eating, insulin helps glucose enter the cells of our body: brain cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, etc. In diabetes, insulin is either not produced at all, or cells do not react to it , And therefore glucose can not enter the cell. As a result, the blood sugar level increases, and the human body is dehydrated, fat decomposition occurs, etc.
If you do not control blood sugar andDo not treat diabetes, then this can lead a person into a diabetic coma. In addition to coma, diabetes also leads to other negative consequences, sugar destroys blood vessels and this can lead to blindness, kidney failure, stroke and heart attack, and amputation of the legs.
Now let's consider specifically the causes of diabetes in the first and second types.
The causes of type 1 diabetes
With type 1 diabetes, it decreases or stopsProduce insulin pancreas. Basically, the cause of type 1 diabetes is a genetic predisposition. In this case, genetically a person is not transferred to diabetes itself, but a predisposition to it.
The reason we found out is heredity, butHow can the disease manifest itself? The heredity of diabetes can be found in the body, but under the influence of bacteria and viruses, surgical intervention, etc. The "hidden threat" can go into the active phase. In this case, in those who are predisposed to diabetes, viral infections can provoke the creation of antibodies that destroy the insulin-forming cells, which leads to the onset of the disease.
A person with hereditaryA predisposition to diabetes, throughout life can not become a diabetic if it controls itself, leading a healthy lifestyle: proper nutrition, physical activity, supervision by a doctor, etc. Typically, the first type of diabetes is manifested in children and adolescents.
As a result of the research, the doctors came to thisThe conclusion that the causes of heredity of diabetes mellitus in 5% depend on the mother's line, 10% on the father's line, and in case both parents have diabetes, the probability of transmission of a predisposition to diabetes increases to almost 70%.
The causes of type 2 diabetes
If in the case of diabetes of the first type insulin is not produced by the body, then in diabetes of the second type of insulin in the body enough, but glucose does not enter the cells.
The cause of type 2 diabetes is a decreaseSensitivity of cells to insulin. The fault of this process is the fat that produces the hormone adiponectin, because of it the sensitivity of the receptors to insulin decreases, which leads to diabetes mellitus. It turns out that there is glucose, there is insulin, but the cells do not get glucose. In this case, an excess of insulin provokes even more obesity, and an increased sugar content leads to the destruction of blood vessels in our body and, as we have already said, it is fraught with blindness and other abovementioned negative consequences.
The most common cause of type 2 diabetes- obesity. With obesity, fat wraps around the pancreas and liver, resulting in cells losing sensitivity to insulin and not letting glucose.
In our time it is very difficult to find a person whoWould eat right. Due to the fact that we: abuse harmful products, in our diet there is a lack of fiber and protein, we consume a large amount of sweet - all this leads to the development of diabetes. Overeating is fraught with the appearance of excess weight, and in consequence and obesity.
Lack of mobility
Sedentary lifestyle contributes to the emergence ofExcess weight, and not only leads to obesity, but also negatively affects the level of glucose in the blood. Lack of mobility is inherent in office workers, car owners who move only by car, the elderly, etc.
Until recently, physicians did not include stressfulSituation to the main causes of diabetes, but the rapid growth of people whose stress caused the onset of diabetes, moved stress to the list of the main causes of type 2 diabetes.
What is characteristic, if diabetes prevailed beforeFirst, now massively prevails the diabetes of the second type. According to statistics, only 17% of the total number of patients with diabetes have the first type of disease, when the whole type of disease affects as many as 83% of patients.
Symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
- Strong thirst;
- Frequent urination;
- Weight loss;
- Decreased work capacity;
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
- A constant feeling of hunger, even after eating;
- Dry mouth;
- Frequent urination;
- Deterioration of vision;
- Muscle weakness;
How do you see some symptoms in both the first and theThe second case is similar, but there are differences. Diabetes of the first type manifests itself up to 30 years, from an early age, and the second type of diabetes is inherent in individuals who are over 40.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus
Diabetes is mandatoryTreat, otherwise it is fraught with very serious consequences, which were listed above. The sooner a diagnosis of diabetes is diagnosed, the greater the chance that negative consequences can be avoided and live a normal and full life. How to treat diabetes?
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus
This type of diabetes is also called insulin-dependent. With type 1 diabetes, insulin producing pancreatic cells - are destroyed, and accordingly, the secretion of this hormone decreases sharply, which contributes to its deficiency. As a result, the body can not absorb sugar from the blood and cells test, the so-called energy hunger, while the blood sugar level increases. Most often, with this type of diabetes, the pancreas completely loses its ability to produce insulin. Accordingly, if the body can not independently produce insulin, then we must help him in this, by injecting insulin into the body. Insulin injection is very simple and not at all dangerous, for this you do not need to go to the manipulation room - you can do the injections yourself.
- Syringe pen
In order to inject an injection of insulin,A diabetic patient needs a syringe pen. It is enough to remove the cap and in the abdomen to produce a prick - the procedure is completely painless. You can always carry this unit with you, but paired with a device that measures the level of sugar in the blood.
- Insulin pump
In addition to the syringe pen, there is an insulin pump,The needle of which must be constantly in the body. The device always controls the level of sugar in our blood, and as soon as it rises, the device introduces insulin into the body, thereby achieving a balance of sugar content. As a result, a person lives a normal life, and diabetes does not manifest itself, except for wearing this device. This option is much more convenient and practical than the previous one.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
The second type of diabetes is called insulin-independent. Diabetes type 2 is accompanied by a high content of sugar in the blood, which does not enter the cells of the body. How to treat type 2 diabetes?
Weight reduction will help reduceThe amount of fat inside the stomach, which in turn will increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin, and it will begin to promote the normal penetration of glucose into the cells of our body. Therefore, the first thing you need to do with type 2 diabetes is to lose weight, then maybe you will get rid of problems with high blood sugar.
Regular exercise will help reduce blood sugar. In addition, exercise can help lose weight.
It is not necessary to make daily jogs orGo to the gym, just enough for at least 30 minutes 3 times a week to perform moderate physical activity. Very useful will be daily walks on foot. Even if you will work several days a week in your garden, this will have a positive effect on your well-being.
For successful treatment of diabetes, proper nutrition is one of the most important conditions. The first unit of proper nutrition is products that must be excluded from the diet:
- Sweets (confectionery, chocolate, sweets, ice cream, jam, etc.);
- Spicy, salty and smoked food;
Eating should be balanced and thoughtful:
- Caloric content of food should correspond to the needs of the patient;
- Proteins, fats and carbohydrates should be balanced;
- It is necessary to divide the daily intake of food by 5-6 times;
- It is recommended to eat food at the same time.
What should dominate the diet:
- Black bread or bread from wholemeal flour;
- Soups with weak meat, fish or vegetable broth (1-2 times a week);
- Meat and poultry only in stew or boiled form;
- Fish (only lean) in boiled or baked form;
- Sweet and sour fruit.
With type 2 diabetes, you need to take pills, which are divided into 3 groups:
- Tablets that reduce the absorption of glucose from the intestine;
- Tablets that promote the ingress of glucose into cells by other routes without insulin;
- Tablets, temporarily increasing the concentration of insulin.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus with folk remedies
With diabetes mellitus help to relieve the pancreas will be able to such herbs as:
- The goatskin;
- Dandelion root;
Correct metabolism is facilitated by:
- Mulberry leaves;
- Bean pods.
Separately it is worth noting such a plant as a Jerusalem artichoke, the tubers of which contain a large amount of inulin, which helps to lower the level of sugar in the blood.
Prevention of diabetes mellitus
If you fall into the so-called risk group or just want to protect yourself from diabetes. Then we will give you some preventive recommendations in this regard.
The first action of prevention of diabetes mellitusIs the control of sugar level. This you can do by purchasing a personal special for this device - a glucometer. You can carry it with you and check the sugar level at any time.
In addition to the blood sugar level, monitor yourWeight, if you started to gain, for no particular reason, a kilogram, or if you notice symptoms characteristic of diabetes mellitus, then definitely consult a doctor.
Pay special attention to nutrition. As little as possible, eat foods that can provoke obesity, as well as food containing harmful ingredients. Eating should be done 5-6 times a day, the last reception should be 3 hours before bedtime. In your diet should prevail foods rich in complex carbohydrates, which will help slow the ingress of glucose into the blood. The diet should be balanced, so as not to create a load on the pancreas. Do not abuse sweets, especially if you are predisposed to diabetes. If the sugar in the blood is "naughty", then with the help of a glucometer you can calculate the product or group of foods that increases the level of sugar to exclude them in the future.
Walking, physical education and sports should become your friends. Light and moderate exercise is an excellent way to prevent diabetes. The main thing is not to lead a sedentary lifestyle - it is a pledge of obesity.
Stress is the companion of manyDiseases, including diabetes. Stay calm and do not let stress overcome you, and also learn to relax. Control yourself and do not get upset over trifles. If suddenly you start to get nervous, drink soothing agents.
Take care of your health beforehand, and not when the illness has already engulfed you.
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